It’s Show (and Tell) Time!

“Show, don’t tell” is something of a mantra for fiction writers.

Here’s an example of both:

Telling: “Close the door,” she said nervously.

Showing: Her cigarette trembled in her hand: “Close the door.”

Telling: Peter was a fussy, neat sort of man.

Showing: Every Monday, Peter ironed and folded his towels into perfect squares and stacked them in the airing press, according to size and colour.

“Showing” your reader what your protagonist is thinking/doing, encourages your reader to engage more with your book/story/play, to interpret and  picture what is going on. Showing also allows for more atmosphere and lends insight into character. Conversely, “telling” tends to deliver all the information neatly wrapped and can deny the reader all the fun of involvement and imagining.

Therefore, rather than telling the reader, ‘Bob was depressed,’ you might describe what Bob was doing and saying and the reader will also get a greater sense of ‘Bob’ if you do so.

Having said that, if the writer “shows” every inch of their novel it may bore the reader and slow the pace. There are times, for the sake of speed and economy, the writer needs to “tell”, so they can quickly move on to the next stage of the story.

If I could suggest a rule of thumb, it would be “show” the most important parts/events of the story and “tell” the minor linking passages. It’s your judgement call as to when and where to show or tell, but do give it thought.

Finally, please bear in mind the general consensus is that you always avoid telling via adverbs in speech attribution: “he said arrogantly”, “she shouted defiantly”, “we mumbled apologetically”. Instead, try to think of ways you could show this arrogance, defiance or apology.


About suehealy

Irish writer/playwright Sue Healy’s work has been supported and developed by the Abbey Theatre, the Peggy Ramsay Foundation, the Heinrich Boll Association and the Tyrone Guthrie Centre. Her play ‘Brazen Strap’ ran at the King’s Head Theatre in May 2016, funded by Arts Council England. Her work has also shown at the Hackney Attic and the Etcetera Theatre in London, with readings in Norwich, Brighton and Cornwall. Sue’s nine radio dramas have broadcast on BBC Radio 4, WLRfm, KCLR96fm. Awards, Residencies and Bursaries: 2017 – Claremorris Fringe Award, Heinrich Boll bursary and residency 2016 - Peggy Ramsay Foundation playwriting grant, Tyrone Guthrie Centre residency, Arts Council England funding 2015 – BBC Opening Lines Award, Arte Studio Ginestrelle residency 2014 - University of Lincoln Ph.D. fees funding 2013 – Escalator Award, Áras Eanna Inis Oirr residency 2012 - Meridian Short Story Prize 2011 – The Molly Keane Memorial Award, Sussex Playwrights’ Award, the HiSSAC Award 2010 - Ted O'Regan bursary, Tyrone Guthrie Centre residency (2016 - Finalist for the Eamon Keane Playwriting Prize, Nick Darke Award and the Old Vic 12) A UEA Creative Writing MA alumna, she spent eleven years in Budapest, editing Hungary A.M. Presently, she is London-based, researching a PhD on the Royal Court Theatre. Sue is Deputy Literary Manager at the Finborough. View all posts by suehealy

8 responses to “It’s Show (and Tell) Time!

  • Gillian Colbert

    Always good advice. I tend to slip into the adverb attribution and have to watch that.

    • suehealy

      Hi Gillian, thanks for the comment. Yup, me too. In fact, my first drafts break every piece of advice I’ve ever listed on this blog – which makes editing a long process : ) When writing my first draft, i use adverbs (in speech attribution and elsewhere) as a shorthand for what I want to ‘show’ – and do so when I come back to revise and edit…

  • rebeccakuder

    Here here to editing! By the way, if any of your readers are still tempted to use adverbs to describe how things are said, here’s a good rant against using words other than (or in addition to) “said” as dialogue tags:

  • Tiyana

    “Having said that, if the writer ‘shows’ every inch of their novel it will be boring for the reader – too slow and long winded to be enjoyable. There are times, for the sake of speed and economy, the writer needs to ‘tell’, so they can quickly move on to the next stage of the story.”

    So true! I was reminded of this last week while editing/rewriting a chapter. I zoomed in on too many small details, and the word count somehow kept growing and growing and growing…

    Sometimes you just have to summarize stuff (though still find a way to make it entertaining) and go for a broader sweep, if the “showing” descriptions are hampering the pace of the story.

  • Carol Lovekin

    As ever, you nail sound advice with simple clarity.
    I’ve been pondering the Show/Tell issue myself this week. Final (she prayed!) revisions are a last chance to get the balance right.

  • Nisha

    The last part about adverbs in speech attribution really hit home. I do it all the time!
    I think I take for granted that the meaning can be conveyed in the speech. I guess I also shouldn’t underestimate the reader because I always feel if I don’t write “he said sarcastically…” then they might not get that he was being sarcastic!

  • pol159

    You give really sound and practical advice for writing.

    But frankly I wonder how you found my blog and decided to follow me; thanks 🙂

  • grammarsherpa

    This is a great reminder of a principle that I know in my head but too often forget when I’m writing.

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